Although there are vineyards in almost every US state, California is vastly superior to all others, and its production can even be classified on a global scale. In fact, California took 4 for the production of wine in the world with a total of & # 39; production capacity of 2 billion liters a year, after Italy, France and Spain. He also is one of the most diverse wine regions in the world due to its ability to produce almost 100 individual high-quality grapes. Some of the most popular wines:
* Pinot Noir
* Cabernet Sauvignon
* Sauvignon Blanc
The state has about 4,500 wine-growers of grapes; evidence of the size and importance of the wine industry in California. In 2006, the California wine industry has had economic impact on its own staff by 51.8 billion dollars and the impact on the 125.3 billion dollars for the whole United States. The wine industry in California is easy with & # 39 is the most profitable of any other area in the United States states, and its wine is among the highest worldwide.
Due to the different growing conditions in California shares the wine area in the five main regions: North Coast, peradgor & # 39; and the Sierras, Central Coast, Central Valley and Southern California. Each of these regions can be further subdivided into padregiony called appeals (which often are the & # 39 counties), which many people are not even familiar with wine, easy to recognize by name, such as Napa, Sonoma and San Valley Joaquin. If the wine label contains a certain name, this means that at least 75 percent of the grapes used in this wine grown in this particular region. wine labels can also contain two or three treatments for the classification of different grapes used in wine, as if precisely marked percent.
Climate range in California Var & # 39; iruetstsa depending from region to region, to provide superior products of various types of well-grown grapes, which leads to different grades. Elements out & # 39; I like the cool sea breeze that cools the vineyards of Sonoma County, are extremely important in vyrastayuchyh needs of growing grapes.
The most important varieties that are produced in the wine-growing region of California, with a & # 39 are Chardonnay and Cabernet, although many other varieties of the region massively popular with pinot noir so. California wine region has a reputation for producing high quality wine for fun in a relaxed atmosphere among friends, just as it would be the biggest supporters.
Merlot – it is a popular grape red wine, red wine, which is believed to have occurred because of Cabernet-Franc and was first recorded in Italy in 1832. It is used for blending purposes, inspired wine region of Bordeaux, France, as well as for direct production of high-quality wines. In particular, in the 1990s, Merlot has experienced great growth in popularity and has become a new trendy wine, but its popularity was unchanged. In 2003, California had more than 50 000 hectares devoted only grapes Merlot.
Some top quality Merlot come from Bordeaux, France, Napa Valley, Sonoma, Chile and Washington. These areas have raised the historical land of Merlot for better soil, which led to the fact that Merlot is less suitable for mixing and perfect for their own kind. Merlot taste depends on the type of soil on which it was grown. For example, Merlot with a flat and clay soil leads to a more smooth and velvet of wine. Merlot is grown in more mountainous regions it tends more like a Cabernet Sauvignon.
Many Merlot has a taste reminiscent of Cabernet Sauvignon, but they have less acidity due to the thin skin of the grapes and the earlier ripening. It also often has a variety of flavors such as currant, plum, black cherry, caramel, cloves, bay leaf, pepper, olive and purple. It is not enough to tannins, and many wine lovers believe that it is smooth and easy to drink red variety.
When mixing Merlot it is often combined with Cabernet Sauvignon to balance the strength and taste the flavors of each type, with the result that combines the best of both worlds. Another benefit to the mixture of Merlot and Merlot / Cabernet Sauvignon is that the price is often much less than the overall grade Cabera Sauvignon.
While many wine lovers believe that red wine can only be made at room temperature, in fact, Merlot should be served a few degrees below room temperature, as sometimes it can be less pleasant taste about 74 degrees Fahrenheit. Cooling it to a couple of minutes ensures that the wine is a little cooler and ensure the best flavors.
As Merlot is not as rich as some other varieties of red wine, it is still quite flexible in its light combinations with plenty of popular dining options. Because this wine is medium build, it combines well with beef, meat, sausages and hearty dish of pasta.
With the recent movie Sideway, recently Pinot Noir was widespread among the general population, n & # 39; e wine, and greatly multiplied its popularity. It originated in the Burgundy wine region of France, but now spread around the world in a much different wine regions, which cover almost all wine-growing region. Despite his worldwide popularity, Pinot Noir is one of the most difficult grapes for efficient cultivation because it brittle and difficult to control in terms of preventing mutations grapes or any other unwanted vibrations that lead to undesirable changes in flavor or other characteristics. in grapes.
Pinot Noir reaches its peak in the development of taste when grown in cooler wine regions and never remembers the level of precision and excellence in the development, which he achieved in his home in the Burgundy wine region. However, all Pinot Noir wines are usually light red shade that Var & # 39; iruetstsa from cherries to plums. They also have a fragrant aroma, which encompasses notes of cherry, violets, berries and spices. Like most other wines, wine Pinot Noir develops greater complexity of flavors in aging. The aging process can contribute to the aroma, reminiscent of the skin and mushrooms to the taste of wine sizes.
Pinot Noir wines are usually considered mild and medium build, because they are quite fragile varietal, which often also include fine silky tannins.
Grapes Pinot Noir, although it is very difficult to effectively grow, and it becomes difficult to maintain consistency in the winemaking process. Winemakers are fighting for the modification of the winemaking process for Pinot Nuarsa to find the optimal process to emphasize the delicate flavor and structural aspects of the class. For example, winemakers need to be very careful aging in Pinot noir with oak barrels, because the woody scents can easily overcome the fragility of the natural flavors, balanced in Pinot Noir. Parts Pinot Noir can also be mixed in such a manner that masks imperfections due to changes in the winemaking process, or weakness inherent to grapes.
When pairing wines with Pinot Noir products be sure to go easy on the spices, otherwise the delicate flavors of Pinot Noir will be masked. Salmon – this is one of the best pairs for Pinot Noir wines, so flavors are equally easy, but with the complexity that is pretty good kamplimentue otherwise.
Cabernet – a term that covers several different varieties: primarily Cabernet Sauvignon and Cabernet Franc. Cabernet Sauvignon – especially popular variety, which arose from the grapes developed by crossing Cabernet Franc with Sauvignon Blanc grapes. In fact, the Cabernet Sauvignon – this is the most widely grown red grape in most wine regions of the world, and especially in the wine region of France Budo. In other parts of the world Cabernet Sauvignon is also called Petit Cabernet, Sauvignon Rouge and Vider, so it's important to remember about these phrases when you are abroad.
In addition, since 1960, Cabernet Sauvignon was the most common term for varietal red wines thanks to the broad appeal and criticized. Since such a high demand in many wine circles, Cabernet Sauvignon is susceptible to an increase in cost due to inflation, as the demand of wealthy wine lovers are driven prices up. On the other hand, the father of Cabernet Sauvignon grape Cabernet Franc is less popular because it is less desirable than its grape descendants. However, it is quite often used as a mixing element in mixed varietal wine, particularly Merlot. General advice for most novice wine consumers is that most of the spilled wine labeled Cabernet grapes belong to something & # 39; and Cabernet Sauvignon, and not to the Cabernet Franc.
Cabernet Sauvignon flourishes best in regions with long growing season because of the warm climate and reaches maturity quite late in the season. Also it grows well in arid areas with little well-drained soil. These elements allow Cabernet Sauvignon grapes to mature fruit-flavored, not more herbal flavor, which occurs due to exposure to high humidity and grapes excess nutrients in the soil during the growing process. Sam grapes relatively small with a tight outer skin that protects the grapes from many elements. They are much more resistant to disease and can be treated as fairly hardy grape varieties.
Cabernet Sauvignon also with & # 39 is one of the best aged wines. Traditionally kept in small oak barrels for eighteen months before bottling. This period of aging allows the wine to develop greater complexity and depth of flavors that it contains. Some of the flavors, which are often referred to as Cabernet Sauvignon, – a dark cherry, black currant, olive, pepper, cedar and tobacco. Cabernet Sauvignon can also sometimes be and acute or trenching flavor profiles.
Syrah – Shiraz
Currently, the Shiraz is the fifth part of all the grape vines in Australia and a & # 39 is one of the most widely harvested grapes in the country. Despite the fact that in recent years the intense popularity of rival red Cabernet Sauvignon Shiraz was due to secondary status in the consumers of wine, many wine growers begin to revive its Shiraz new styles and aging methods.
Grape vine Shiraz has an interesting history and a place in the modern wine world. Usually their fault called the "new world", as a rule, more fruit in their preferred flavors as opposed to the wines of the "Old World", which is often called Syrah. Since both types of wine produced from genetically the same grapes, the differences between them are minimal. Some suppliers of wines even argue that the difference between Shiraz and cheese is associated only with stylistic advantages.
However, South Africa, Canada and Australia – the three regions of the primary growth, called this sort of wine like Shiraz, not cheese. These regions support the tendency to identify their exports to the classification of New World wine "Shiraz", which defines it as an easier and more aggressively fruity style of wine.
Shiraz grapes normally used in the production of red table wines that are typical of aging well. Shiraz main difficulty often reaches taste after approximately ten to fifteen years of aging; but it can be easy to apply much earlier in the aging process, without bringing on the great taste. It is also often used as a blending wine, although it is mainly in the Spanish regions.
Shyratskiya guilt characteristic of full saturation, and palatability can be easily changed depending on the physical wine region of its production characteristics. Some of the flavors that are most often referred to Shiraz wine, with a & # 39 are: blackberries, chocolate, black pepper, plums and spices. Shiraz also has soft tannins and oak flavors varying degrees. They bloom especially in the wine regions of Australia with a cool and dry climate, which allows you to get the berries. Other grape Vinogradov Shiraz grown in warmer climates tend to cover more soft aromas of plum.
Despite the frequent association of wine from the New World Shiraz – one of the oldest known varieties of grape vine. In fact, he is called the city of the same name in Iran, where the wine may have originated thousands of years ago.
Zinfandel often gets less than stellar reputation among the whimsical wine lovers, as he recently gained a reputation as "the initial fault," especially for women, because of the sweet taste popular in the 1980s and 90s. However vinarobtsy reacted in the past few years, this prejudice against Zinfandels, improving the complexity and balance of flavors in their wines to make them more enjoyable choice for savvy consumer wine complex aromas feelings.
What makes the wine more attractive for wine lovers? The complexity and completeness of flavors – a few key aspects of a well-produced wine. In Zinfanfels there are a few characteristics of the most popular flavors: blackberry, raspberry, cherry, clove, black pepper and anise. However, depending on the complexity of Zinfandel, you may experience many other levels of flavors, especially through the tasting, which you carefully pay attention to the finer points issued for the entire wine experience. Another interesting characteristic of Zinfandels is that they also often confused with others such as Cabernet Sauvignon and Petite Syrah.
Since Zinfandels Var & # 39; iruetstsa from white to light bodily fairly reliable red, they are not from the & # 39 are strict rules on which foods pair with them. Some zinfandeli have sufficient body and the presence of fragrances, which can be drunk even with a hearty steak or a rich chocolate dessert. Lighter Muscat can be a great combination for Latin American and tropic-inspired dishes.
Zinfandel originates from well-vine Zinfandel grapes with red skin, which is used for the production of both red and white Zinfandels. Officially named in 1832, Zinfandels traditionally defined as the American variety, and can be quite difficult to find in the foreign markets. It was recently discovered that the grape is genetically identical to the Muscat grape Prymatsiva, a native of Italy. This discovery begins to explain a previously unknown Muscat grape heritage.
California wineries Zinfandels embraced as its own distinctive variety, resulting in a reputation of Zinfandel, to become representation and brand image of the Californian wine. Some of the most popular regions for the production of Zinfandels: Napa Valley, Sonoma, Mendokina-Lake, Central Valley, Bay area, peradgor & # 39; and the Sierra and Southern California. However, not one of Zinfandel & # 39 is exclusive to California, and can be made in US regions as far away as North Carolina and Tennessee, as well as in foreign place where you exported grapes Zinfandel.
Chardonnay has become the most popular white wine in America over the past few decades. The reasons for this development are varied. The first is that Chardonnay have a wide attractive taste, which often consists of fruit and rich oily notes. Thanks to the versatility of wine, it may have a plurality of distinct variations of flavors, and vineyards can even mix with other varieties Chardonnay as a way to experience new flavors in the wine mixture. One of the other most important reason for its popularity with the & # 39 is that it is widely available and can be very low due to the small winter-hardy grapes Chardonnay to many diseases and, therefore, easier to grow in many environments. Thus, the demand for Chardonnay easily filled, despite the fact that the grapes Chardonnay with a & # 39 is more fragile at the stage of development of winemaking.
Some of the key distinguishing characteristics of this well-loved white wine in that it is dry and often quite saturated with the most popular flavors and aromas, mentioned in the description Chardin – apple, melon, pear, lemon and pineapple. as well as butter, peanut, butter, vanilla, oak and citrus. Especially if Chardonnay is aged in oak barrels, it acquires delicious or oily quality and flavor of vanilla or coconut, which adds depth tasting wealth. Many types of cheap chardonnay seeking to achieve Oak taste, use steel barrels of oak chips to reduce production costs, while at the same time acquiring a similar flavor and texture in their wines.
Шардоны – адзін з самых папулярных гатункаў, якія вырошчваюць у вінаробным рэгіёне Каліфорніі, але таксама квітнеюць у Аўстраліі, Новай Зеландыі, Аргенціне, Чылі і Паўднёвай Афрыцы. У 2000 г. вінаград Шардоне складаў 40 адсоткаў усяго вінаграду белага віна, пасаджанага ў вінаробных рэгіёнах Каліфорніі, і можа квітнець ў многіх рэгіёнах з даволі адрозным характарам надвор'я. Французскія шардоны таксама лічацца надзвычай якаснымі і на самай справе ў вінаробным рэгіёне Шаблі ў Францыі вінаград Шардоне з'яўляецца адзіным дазволеным гатункам вінаграду.
Сёння Шардоны менш моцна падвяргаюцца закісанню дуба, паколькі грамадскія перавагі перайшлі на больш лёгкія і выразныя варыянты гэтага гатунку. Прычынай такой перавагі можна лічыць вяртанне з некалькіх апошніх дзесяцігоддзяў, калі ўсе шардоны былі настолькі моцна перапрацаваны малочна-малочнай ферментацыяй і іншымі спосабамі старэння, што нават самыя характэрныя шардоны пачалі губляць свае характэрныя водары.
Совіньён Блан – гэта вельмі папулярнае ў цяперашні час белае віно. Каліфарнійскі совіньён блан таксама часам называюць Fume Blanc. Рост вінаграду Совіньён Блан займае амаль 14 000 гектараў толькі ў Каліфорніі. Совіньён Блан таксама вырошчваецца ў рэгіёнах, такіх як Паўднёвая Афрыка, Новая Зеландыя, Чылі, Італія, Францыя, Аўстралія і нават можа вырошчвацца ў дзіўных рэгіёнах, такіх як Канада і Лонг-Айленд, Нью-Ёрк.
Совіньён Блан часта разглядаецца як лепшае белае віно для многіх харчовых спалучэнняў, паколькі яго востры, агрэсіўны водар добра спалучаецца з прадуктамі. Ён асабліва добра спалучаецца з прадуктамі, якія змяшчаюць такія кампаненты, як перац, часнык, вэнджаныя сыры з кінзы і памідоры, якія звычайна цалкам адоляць нават самыя моцныя духмяныя шардоны ў дадатак да большасці іншых белых вінаў.
Совіньён Блан валодае унікальным водарам, які дазваляе лёгка распазнаць у параўнанні з іншымі белымі вінамі. Яе водары, як правіла, можна аднесці да травяністых, такіх як лімоннік, агрэст і свежа скашаная трава. Аднак ён валодае і іншымі традыцыйнымі водарамі, такімі як зялёная дыня, грэйпфрут, пассифлоры і балгарскі перац. У цэлым Совіньён Блан з'яўляецца моцным, вострым і духмяным гатункам, які пераважае над многімі іншымі белымі вінамі па інтэнсіўнасці і рэзкасці густаў.
У адрозненне ад многіх іншых гатункаў віна, Совіньён Блан часта не старэе ў дубовых бочках, таму што часта адыходзіць ад неспрыяльнага смакавага спалучэння. Аднак совіньён бланкі часта змешваюць – гэта тэхніка, якая часам супакойвае іх абразіўныя густы. Змешванне совіньёна блан з Semillon (іншы гатунак віна, які вырошчваецца ў асноўным у Францыі) з'яўляецца папулярнай практыкай, асабліва ў легендарным рэгіёне Францыі Boudreaux, бо Semillon дадае смак інжыра і змякчае агульны густ совіньёна блан. Суадносіны Semillon ў спалучэнні з Sauvignon Blanc вар'іруецца ў рэгіёне і сустракаецца ў першую чаргу ў Францыі. Аднак некаторыя версіі складаюцца з 70-адсоткавага Semillon і 30-адсоткавага Sauvignon Blanc, а іншыя разнавіднасці складаюцца з амаль зваротнага суадносін 75% Sauvignon Blanc і 15% Semillon. Гэтыя сумесі – выдатны варыянт для спажыўцоў віна, якія карыстаюцца некаторымі водарамі совіньёна бланка, але лічаць яго занадта агрэсіўным для сваіх гурманаў.
Паколькі Совіньён Блан па-ранейшаму не так папулярны ў многіх спажыўцоў віна, як яго больш папулярны стрыечны брат гатунку Шардоне, шмат якія якасці Совіньён Блан вельмі эканамічна ацэнены. У спалучэнні з яго дасканаласцю ў спалучэнні мноства складаных спалучэнняў страў, Совіньён Блан – выдатны выбар для разнавіднасцяў вячэры.